In his seminal An Essay on Civil Society, Adam Ferguson tackles frontally the problem of how human beings can be studied scientifically. Specifically, he decries the tendency of all purportedly scientific theories of human society to reduce human affairs to a few fundamental axioms or hypotheses from which it then seeks to draw almost syllogistically conclusions about the past, present and future course of human history. Indeed, argues Ferguson, this Euclidean axiomatic tendency, misguidedly thought to be the only “scientific” method valid, has the inevitable effect to eschew and extrude all historical perspectives from the analysis of human society. According to Ferguson, it is a fallacy to try to reduce human beings to specific aspects of their existence for the purposes of ostensible scientific analysis for the simple reason that human beings cannot be examined as isolated atomic indivisible individuals. This ontogenetic approach must be supplanted instead by a more holistic phylogenetic one because human beings cannot exist in separation from one another and because indeed they are incomprehensible without this socio-logical approach. Human beings are congenitally – and therefore genetically and physiologically – inseparable from one another. They are zoa politika in the literal physiological sense - because all human attributes, even the most anatomical, are incomprehensible without reference to the historical development of the human race. Insensate, therefore, is the attempt to reduce human behaviour to that of the single individual because such a hypothetical individuum simply does not exist – not in terms of actual separate existence away from human association, and not in terms of hypothetical possessive individualism or selfishness surmised to take primacy over all other human instincts. Who says – that human beings are naturally and ineluctably selfish and possessive? Where is it written – that the reduction of human beings to incurably self-interested egoistic beings is the most or even only “scientific” way to begin the study and theorization of human society? So far as we know, maintains Ferguson, from the study and observation of human behaviour throughout history, human beings exist not as atomised individuals but rather within organized societies or groups. Nor are human beings more prone to be selfish than they are to be altruistic toward one another. Therefore, the tendency for the “scientific” study of human society to begin with the hypothetical positing of an atomic self-interested and infinitely possessive individual is so counterfactual and fictional as to be simply unscientific!